What is a disability and the determination of the severity of a disability
Disability is a long-term established (i.e., difficult to reverse or irreversible) condition:
- in which there is a deficiency or disorder (one or more) of any structure of the body of a permanent nature,
- due to which a person's ability to cope is limited in normal situations
- due to which the person needs auxiliary help and/or aids
The need for treatment is not a basis for determining disability because:
- it is not possible to compensate for the disability with treatment and/or medication
- the disability is not caused by the constant need for medication, the treatment of an acute or chronic disease
- disability is not caused by a large number of drugs used
- the disability is not caused by the need for frequent medical visits
- giving the child medicines (tablet therapy, inhalation therapy) is an age-appropriate secondary aid and does not cause disability
- children who often suffer from infectious diseases, who are therefore often absent from kindergarten or school - this is an increased need for treatment, and functional limitations of a permanent nature have not been described by treating doctors - there is no basis for determining a disability.
In order to cope with the additional costs arising from special needs, we pay monthly social benefits to disabled people. A number of service providers also offer discounts for people with disabilities, for example, in public transport, ferry rides, museums, and theatres.
The grounds for the determination of a disability of children, working-age, and old-age pensioners are different.
To determine the severity of the disability, submit an application to the Social Insurance Board.
There are several ways to apply:
- submit a request in self-service through communication and notification
- send the completed and digitally signed application to the Social Insurance Board's e-mail address [email protected]
- send the application by mail to the address Paldiski mnt 80, 15092 Tallinn
- take the application to the customer service of the Social Insurance Board (customer service contact details)
If the term of the determination of a disability is about to expire and the condition has not changed, a new application must be submitted.
A repeat examination is necessary if your condition has not changed (limitations in performing daily activities are the same or have become more difficult). In this case, you can submit the request starting 50 working days before the deadline for the duration of the previously valid decision on the severity of the disability.
If your health condition has changed before the end of the disability period, submit a new application to us.
An early examination is necessary if your condition has changed significantly. In this case, you can submit a new application ahead of time (more than 50 working days before the deadline for the duration of the previously valid decision of severity of the disability). Before applying, it is important that the family doctor or specialist has made an entry in the e-health information system (digital health records) describing the changed/deteriorated state of health and the resulting limitations.
We remind you that if the state of health has improved compared to the time of submitting the previous application (limitations on basic daily activities have decreased), then the recipient of the benefit also has the obligation of information thereof. Limitations to daily activity do not include the addition of new diagnoses if they do not cause additional restrictions and additional prescriptions for drugs that help compensate for the condition.
With the disability card, you can easily prove the severity of your disability and the right to receive a discount on services with service providers. We issue cards for both children and adults.
The card is valid for as long as the period of the determined severity of your disability. If you apply for disability repeatedly when the disability term expires, we will issue you a new card together with the new disability decision.
According to the Public Transport Act, in addition to preschool children, disabled children, profoundly disabled persons aged 16 and over, severely visually impaired persons, and a companion of a profoundly or severely visually impaired person or a guide dog accompanying a visually impaired person can travel for free on domestic routes.
The right to ride for free can be proved by a disabled person with a pension certificate or a disability card. An identity document must be presented with the card.
In addition to the right to free travel arising from the Public Transport Act, the local government can apply additional travel fare concessions to people with disabilities.
Several service providers in the field of sports and culture - in theaters, cinemas, museums, exhibitions, and concerts - also offer discounts to people with disabilities. Benefits can be found on the website of the Estonian Chamber of People with Disabilities
Last updated: 23.03.2023